Bengal gram / Chickpea / Gram

Overview:
Bengal gram also known as Chickpea or Gram (Cicer aritinum L.) in South Asia and Garbanzo bean in most of the developed world. Bengalgram-overviewIt is grown in an area of 10.57 million hectares contributing a major share of 41.25 percent of major pulses grown in India during 2017-18. Production of Gram (chickpeas) is the highest among all pulses produced in the country constituting 11.23 million tonnes accounting for nearly 44.51 percent of the total pulse production in India and 68.13 percent of the total world production as in the year 2018.

Major Contributing states in terms of area and production(2017-18).

  • MadhyaPradeshcontributed a significant 33.95% of the total gram area and 41.18 % of total gram production in the country,thereby ranking first both in area and production
  • Maharashtra (18.92%) and Rajasthan (13%) were the next in terms of area
  • More than 90 per cent of gram production of the country during the period under report has been realized by 10 states of MP, MS, Rajasthan, Karnataka, UP, AP, Gujarat, Jharkhand, CG and Telangana
Importance
  • widely appreciated as health food and is a protein-rich supplement to cereal-based diets, especially to the poor in developing countries
  • The pulse proteins are rich in lysine and have low sulphur containing amino acids
  • It offers the most practical means of eradicating protein malnutrition among vegetarian children and nursing mothers
  • Sprouted seeds are recommended for curing scurvy
  • Malica and Oxalic acids collected from green leaves
  • are prescribed for intestinal disorders.
Nutritive value Bengalgram-Importance
  • Protein – 18-22% Calcium – 280 mg/100 g
  • Carbohydrate – 61-62% Iron – 12.3 mg/100 g
  • Fat – 4.5 % Phosphorus – 301 mg/100 g
  • Calorific value – 396
TYPES

1 Desi or brown gram (Cicer arietinum):

Bengalgram-TYPES-1
  • Most widely cultivated group in India (90% of total world)
  • Colour of seed coat ranges yellow to dark brown, usually small in seed size but some large size varieties are also found
  • Plants are small with good branching ability, especially suited for late sown and rice fallow areas

2 Kabuli or white gram (Cicer kabulianum):

  • Colour of seed coat white with bold and attractive seed size
  • Bengalgram-TYPES-2
  • Plants are taller than desi and stand more or less erect
  • Yield potential is poor on account of poor branching as compare to ‘desi’