Black gram is one of the important pulse crops grown throughout India and is in all the 3 seasons such as kharif, rabi and summer and throughout India. It is consumed in the form of ‘dal’ (whole or split, husked and un-husked) or perched. Black lentil is nothing but the split black gram and after removing black skin it is sold as white lentil. It can be grown as sole crop, mixed crop, cash crop or crop under rainfed or semi–irrigated condition in Kharif and summer season.
It is also a green manuring crop and is mainly cultivated in a cereal-pulse cropping system primarily to conserve soil nutrients and utilize the left over soil moisture particularly, after rice cultivation. Hence, although it can be grown in all the seasons, majority of its cultivation falls in either rabi or late rabi seasons particularly in peninsular India. Being a drought resistant crop, it is suitable for dryland farming and predominantly used as an intercrop with other crops.
India is major producer and consumer country of black gram. During 2017-18 the crop was cultivated over an area of more than 50 L.ha. More than 90 per cent of urd bean production comes from 09 states i.e. Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Gujarat and West Bengal
It is used as nutritive fooder especially for milch animals.
High values of lysine make urdbean an excellent complement to rice in terms of balanced human nutrition.
It is the chief constituent of papad and also of spiced balls – which make a delicious curry.
Being deep rooted crop, helps in binding soil particles and thus prevents soil erosion.
It fixes atmospheric N (42 kg/ha/year) to the soil through symbiosis and improves fertility of soil.
Crop Calendar in India:
crop rotation with urd
i) Maize-Potato-Urd bean
v) Potato-wheat- Urdbean
Kharif – Urdbea + Pigeonpea (1:1)
Spring – Urdbean+ Sugarcane (2:1); Urdbean + Sunflower (2:6)