Sorghum

Overview:
Sorghum (Jowar) has been considered to be a part of a healthy diet for centuries, which is found mostly in tropical and subtropical climates. It is often referred to as the fifth most important cereal crop grown in the world. Apart from being a healthy cereal and a gluten free alternative for wheat, Sorghum (Jowar) is also used for animal fodder. Sorghum (Jowar) grows well in areas with warm climates. Itwas originated in India and Africa. It is also said that its origin is Abyssinia and from there it was brought to USA and European countries.The crop is grown for both domestic consumption and as a cash crop.

Conditions of Growth:
Basically Sorghum (Jowar) is a tropical crop. It thrives well at a temperature between 25°C and 32°C but below 16°C is not good for the crop. Sorghum (Jowar) is extremely drought tolerant crop and recommended for dry regions. Sorghum (Jowar) is grown on a variety of soil types but the clayey loam soil rich in humus is found to be the most ideal soil. It may tolerate mild acidity to mild salinity under pH 5.5 to 8.0. A good Sorghum (Jowar) soil must have an efficient drainage facilities though, it may withstand water logging more than maize.

Season and Area of Cultivation
Sorghum (Jowar)is mainly concentrated in the peninsular and central India. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh (the Bundelkhand region) and Tamil Nadu are the major Sorghum (Jowar)– growing states. Other states grow Sorghum (Jowar) in small areas primarily for fodder. Deep summer ploughing with mould board plough soon after rabi crop is harvested and leaving the soil exposed to sun until onset of monsoon is a common practice.

Facts and Figure
In India, area under Sorghum (Jowar) cultivation is around 5.62 million ha with the production of 4.57 million MT and yield of 0.81 t/ha. Area under of Sorghum (Jowar) cultivation showed a steady decreasing trend over last two decades with marginal degree of fluctuations. Major producing states (Maharashtra, M.P, Karnataka, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu) recorded negative growth in area. Production of sorghum (Jowar) also declined due to decline in area under cultivation, particularly after 2007-08. Production was 7.93 million MT in 2007-08 and declined to 4.57 million MT in 2016-17. Yield levels of sorghum (Jowar) indicated fluctuating trends from 2000-01 to 2016-17. Lowest (0.72 t/ha) yield was recorded in 2003-04 and highest (1.02 t/ha) in 2007-08.

Varieties
The main varieties of Sorghum (Jowar)grown in India are as follows CSH 20 MF (UPMCH 1101), Pusa Chari Hybrid 109 (PCH 109), SSG-988, 898, 855, HC-136, Raj. Chari- 1&2, PC-6,9,23 HC- 171, 260 (Early to medium duration).

Main Exporters
USA Sudan, Australia, Argentina and Uganda, France, Tanzania, Ukraine, China, Kenya and India.

Major Importer
China, Ethiopia, Japan, Mexico, South Sudan, Spain, Kenya and Djibouti.

Cost and Prices
ProjectedCosts A2+FL, for 2018-19 of sorghum (Jowar) is Rs. 1619 per quintal. Recommended MSP for 2018-19 is Rs.2430 per quintal. MSP is 150 percent of cost A2+FL.