Maize is popularly known as “Corn” and is one of the most versatile emerging cereal cash crops having wider adaptability under variety of climatic conditions. The word “maize” derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taino word for the plant, Maize. It is called queen of cereals globally. In India, Maize is the third most important food cash crops after wheat & rice. Maize is an inferior grain which is used both as food and fodder. Its grain provides food and is used for obtaining starch and glucose. Its stalk is fed to cattle
The maize can be grown throughout the year in all states of the country e for various purposes including fooder for animals, food grain, sweet corn, baby corn, green cobs, and pop corn,. Corn flour is consumed widely in Indian Cooking.
In India, Maize is primarily a rain fed kharif crop which is sown just before monsoon starts. In Tamil Nadu it is a rabi crop and is sown a few weeks before the onset of winter rainy season in September.
This crop usually grows well under temperatures varying from 22oC to 30oC, although it can tolerate temperatures as high as 35oC. This crop is effected by frost, so it is grown where atleast 5 frost free months available in a year. It requires at least 50 to 90 cm of rainfall. It is not recommended to cultivate this crop in the areas where rainfall is more than 100 mm.
Some of the Hybrid Varieties of Maize are Himalayan 123, 30V92, Sona, Kisan, 30R77, Hi-Starch, 32T25, 31T15, Ganga-1, Ganga-101, Ranjit, Deccan, Ganga-5, Ganga-4, Ganga-3, and V.L.54, Vijay, Amber, Jawahar and Vikram.
Major maize producing states in India are Rajasthan, Bihar, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh. United States, Brazil, Argentina, Ukraine, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia, Paraguay, Serbia, Mexico, India, Bulgaria, South Africa, Zambia are the major exporting countries of Maize.
Japan, Mexico, EU-27, Korea, Egypt, Iran, Islamic, Vietnam, Colombia, Algeria, Taiwan, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia etc are the major importing countries of Maize
Maize is an inferior grain which is used both as food and fodder. Its grain provides food and is used for obtaining starch and glucose. Its stalk is fed to cattle.