Package of practices for Bengalgram



Climatic requirement

  • Requires fairly cold and dry climate. Best suited to the areas having 60-90 cm rainfall per annum.

Soil and its preparation

  • Grown in a wide range of soils viz light sandy loam to moderately heavy loam in north to black cotton soils of Central Plateau.

  • In no case suited to soil having more than 8.5 PH.

  • Requires clodded and rough seed bed for good aeration in root zone, obtained by one deep ploughing and a cross harrowing

Varieties :

  • Kabuli – KAK-2 (>40 g/100seeds); Pusa Chamatkar (BG1053), ICCV-2, Pusa Kabuli 1003 (BG-1003), JGK-1, Haryana Kabuli Chana-1.

  • Rice-Chickpea cropping system (late sown up to end of December) – Udai (KPG-59), Pusa-372, RSG-963, PBG-1, Pant G-186 and JG-74;

  • mild saline soil – Karnal Chana 1 (CSG-8962);

  • drought prone areas – RSG-888, Annegiri;

  • high fertile and high rainfall/irrigated areas – DCP- 92-3.

Cropping system

  • Sown after the harvest of kharif crops. Gram in rotation with cereal crops helps in controlling soil- borne diseases.

The most common cropping system

Rotation:- Kharif fallow – Gram (in barani areas), Paddy – Gram, Maize – Gram, Bajra – Gram and Jowar – Gram;

Inter cropping: Chickpea + Mustard (2:1 to 4:1);

Chickpea + Linseed (2:2); chickpea + wheat/ Barley

(2:2), Chickpea + Safflower (2:2) and Chickpea + Coriander (2:2).

Sowing time:

  • Rainfed – Ist fortnight of October in central and south India and IInd fortnight of October in North India.

  • Irrigated– 1st fortnight of November in North India and 2nd fortnight of October in central and southern India

  • Late sowing– Ist week of December in rice fallows of NEPZ or in irrigated conditions, where field are vacated very late by kharif crops.

Seed rate:

  • Small seeded– 50-60 kg/ha;

  • Bold seeded and late sowing– 80-90 kg/ha (Small seeded varieties are recommended for late sown conditions).

Spacing:

  • Rainfed– 30cm x 10cm;

  • Irrigated – 45cm x 10cm;

  • Late sowing – 25cm x 10cm.

Seed treatment:

Treat the seed with thiram or carbendazim @ 2 g/kg of seed before 3 days of sowing followed by seed inoculation with a solution/jaggery having dual culture of Rhizobium and PSB. One packet of both the culture is enough for 10kg seed.

Plant nutrient

management:

About 5 tonnes FYM or compost or biogas spent slurry with 50 % recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) plus rhizobium inoculation for better yields and FUE


  • Recommended fertilizer dose is 15-20 kg N and 40kg

    P2O5 per ha as basal dressing in separate furrow bands before sowing chickpea. In late sown chickpea after rice, apply 40 kg N per ha as basal dose.

Water

management:

  • So as to minimize transpiration loss and conserving residual soil moisture for longer time, a foliar spray of 2% KCL is giving promising results.

  • Under assured irrigation, one irrigation each at maximum branching and pod development results in 25-70% increase in yield in absence of winter rain.

  • In no case, irrigation should be given earlier than four weeks after sowing and during active flowering because earlier situation is harmful for maximum ‘N’ fixation as the Rhizobial bacteria work only in aerobic conditions and later, excess irrigation may reverse the crop again to vegetative phase with severe depression in yield due to ultimately shorter reproductive phase.

Weed

management-

  • Critical Period of Weed Infestation : Up to 30-45 days after sowing (DAS), the critical period.

  • One hand weeding/inter culture with hand hoe or wheel hoe at 30 DAS and another at 55-60 DAS, if second flush of weeds appear heavily. A mechanical operation is always better than the herbicide based as later also provides aeration to the roots for maximum efficacy of ‘N’ fixing bacteria as well as soil moisture conservation for its longer availability by breaking soil capillaries and creating dust mulch.

  • Integrated weed management : Application of either of Flucloralin (Basalin) as pre plant incorporation or Pendimethalin (Stomp) as Pre emergence @ 0.75 kg

  • Also application of Oxyflourfen 100-125 g a.i./ha or 400 to 500 g or ml /ha at 0-3 DAS controls wide spectrum of weeds in the crop.

Plant Protection

Measures

  1. Cutworm - Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 0.04%. Spray of Indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 50 g a.i./ha

  2. Gram pod borer -Monocrotophos 36 EC or NPV @ 250 LE/ha. BT formulation @ 1.0-1.5 kg/ha. Spray of Indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 50 g a.i./ha/

  3. iii. Wilt- Sowing should not be done when temperature is high. ii. Soil Solarization. iii.Seed tretment with BenlateT @ 1.5 g/Kg seed by Bavistin @ 2.5g kg-1 of seeds

  4. iv. Ascochyta Blight : Seed treatment with Calaxin M or Thiobendazole @ 3 Kg of seed. ii. Chlorothalonil @ 3 ml/litre water should be sprayed on the crop. iii. Use disease free seed.

  5. v. Botrytis Greymold : Seed treatment with Thiram + Bavistin (1:1) @ 3 Kg of seed. ii. Adopt wider spacing. iii. Inter-cropping with linseed.

  6. Rust : Dithane M-45 @ 2% at interval of 10 days. Grow resistant varieties.

  7. Stunt virus:

    1. Close spacing should be adopted.

    2. Vector should be controlled.

    3. Rogue out the infected plants. Iv.Spray Monocrotophos at 500 ml/ha

    4. Spray Monocrotophos at 500 ml/ha

Harvesting :

  • Crop becomes ready for harvest when leaves begin

  • Over ripening may lead to fall of pods as well as shattering and seed cracking if seed moisture falls below 10% due to delay in harvesting to fall, stem and pod turn brown or straw in colour and seeds are hard and rattle (most important) with 15% moisture inside them.

Threshing :

  • The crop is allowed to dry for 2-4 days on threshing floor (depending on situation) and threshed by manually or bullock/power drawn thresher followed by winnowing. The clean seed should be sun dried for 3-4 days to bring their moisture content at 9- 10%.

Storage

  • Should be safely stored in appropriate bins and fumigated to protect them from bruchids

Yield-

  • By adopting good management practices, as described above, an average yield of 15-20 q/ha can easily be obtained.