Package of practices for Wheat for India


Soil and Climate The wheat crop needs cool winters and hot summers, though well-drained loams and clayey loams are considered the ideal soil for wheat
Preparation of land One deep ploughing followed by two or three harrowing with disc or tines and two or three planking should be given to prepare a well pulverized seed bed.
Manure Incorporate 100-125 Kg FYM/ha
Popular varieties Kalyansona, Sonalika, Lerma Rojo, Chhoti Lerma, Arjun, C 306, WL 711, UP 262, LOK 1, HUW 206, HUW 234, HD 2189, HD 2329, HD 2285, Raj 3077, PBW 34, WH 147, Sujata, VL 421, VL 616, HS 240, HS 295, UP 2338, PBW 343, PBW 502, GW 322, GW 496, Raj 3765 in bread wheat and Raj 1555, PBW 34, HI 8381, HI 8498, PDW 233 and PDW 291 in durum wheat.
Seed rate & spacing 100 kg/ha to 125 kg/ha, 2.5 kg thiram or 2.5 kg carbendazim or 5 gram trycoderma spore @ 1kg seed. For timely sown and irrigated wheat, a row spacing of 15 to 22.5 cm is followed.
Fertilizers NPK: Irrigated – 150:60:40, Unirrigated - 80:40:30 kg/ha
Weeding Take up 2 to 3 hand weeding, chemical control: Sulfosulfuran @ 25.0g a.i./ha in 250-300 liters of water /ha. Metribuzin @ 175 g a.i./ha in at least 500 liters of water /ha.
Irrigation Management 4-6 irrigations are needed. The first irrigation should be given at the crown root initiation stage, 20-25 days after sowing. Other rounds of irrigation should be done at the time of late tillering, late jointing, flowering, and milk and dough stages.
Plant Protection Leaf Rust /Brown Rust, Stripe Rust /Yellow Rust and Stem Rust /Black Rust: The presently recommended varieties in most of the wheat growing zones are rust resistant. Karnal Bunt: PBW 502 is resistant variety. For management of this disease, one spray of Propiconazole (Tilt 25EC@ 0.1 %) should be given at the time of anthesis. Integration of one spray of propiconazole with one spray of bioagent fungus, Trichoderma viride (0.4% suspension) gives almost cent per cent disease control. Loose Smut: Treat the seed with fungicides like carboxin (Vitavax 75WP @ 2.5g / kg seed), carbendazim (Bavistin 50WP @ 2.5g / kg seed), tebuconazole (Raxil 2DS @ 1.25g / kg seed) if the disease level in the seed lot is high. Powdery Mildew- Avoid excessively dense, stands by using adequate seed. For chemical control, one spray of propi-conazole (Tilt 25EC@ 0.1 %) on disease appearance (which usually occurs during early March in northern plains) is highly effective. Cereal Cyst Nematode: Most of the wheat cultivars are susceptible but some resist cyst formation. Chemical pesticides, some natural plant products and botanicals, coupled with improved cultural practices help in management of the CCN. For Rajasthan, one CCN resistant variety, CCNRV - 1 is available for the disease prone areas.
Harvesting The right stage for harvesting is when there is about 25-30% moisture in grains. Harvesting period: Feb to June, Yield: 25-35 q/ha

DAS*: Days After Sowing

Source: agropedia